Table of Contents
First Aid Course
In this article we will learn how accidents can happen , at any time . How to prepare by knowing basic first aid . It could mean the difference between life and death .
Basic first aid guide
- Basic first aid guide is the ability to provide , basic medical care to someone suffering from a sudden injury or illness . It often comes in forms such as treating cuts , burns or even things like insects .
- But it can also include providing support to , someone in the middle of a medical emergency.
- In these scenarios ; it is important to remain calm , assess the situation , and work to stabilize the person . When offering help , it is important to always remain calm , so that you can think clearly and assess the situation .
- As the person in distress rests , after you have taken a deep breath , it is important to assess the situation to see if basic help is required of you ; or needs from urgent medical attention .
- Use your knowledge and basic assisting skills, to stabilize the injury. If basic help isn’t working, reevaluate your approach, providing basic care until emergency help arrives.
- (1)- By following the general precautions you’ll need to make sure you wash your hands , as you normally do before and after eating , and using the toilet .
- (2)- Wear gloves when in contact with blood , or any other bodily fluids . And wear goggles when there is a chance of bodily fluids coming into contact with your eyes . Wipe off any blood or body fluids as soon as possible .
- (3)- Do not eat or touch your mouth , or eyes while providing first aid . And dispose of any bandages , clothing , or protective equipment that may be contaminated .
- (4)- When providing first aid , it is important that you take appropriate precautions to ensure your safety , and also include the safety of the person you are caring for .
first aid kit
Let’s take a look at what would normally be ; in the first aid box :
- (1) A small brochure that gives you advice on CPR , as well as an emergency blanket .
- (2) saline is usually very important to wash the eye , but it is also used to wash the wound .
- (3) Elco wipes used to clean around the wound and to wipe the skin. and sterile tissues .
- (4) Bandages, bandages carry different sizes, and types. Scissors, forceps, disinfectant, safety pins.
- (5) Burn Gel Sachets are a thick, gentle water-based wash , not a cream and are specifically designed for burns .
- (6) Some gauze , wound pads , gloves , and a full CPR mask which means it will close the face well . It also contains a filter .
First aid in the workplace
common daily injuries and illnesses ; to which any person may be exposed in his life , or in the workplace .
It can include cuts , scrapes , and burns . Back pain , difficulty breathing , allergic reactions , chest pain , head injuries or even poison . Each of these potential injuries , often requires ‘ immediate medical attention ‘ .
Types of first aid
First aid for burns .
CPR first aid .
First aid for wounds .
First aid for insect bites .
First aid for eye injuries.
First aid for epistaxis .
First aid for sprain and fracture .
- (1) First aid for burns
Occupational burns , thermal burns , electrical burns and sunburn are the common types of burns , that most people suffer from .
Burns can cause different levels of severity , and should be treated accordingly . There are three classifications or degrees of burns that one can suffer .
(A)- First-degree burns
- Only damage the top layer of skin . These types of burns are often painful , and can cause slight swelling .
- first aid for these types of burns , often requires immediate cooling of the affected area with cold water and ice .
- After a few minutes of cooling pat , the affected area dry and apply a burn cream , to relieve some of the pain , and prevent infections .
- Finally apply a dry , sterile bandage around the affected area .
- In which damage occurs from the inside and outside of the layers of the skin , and they are significantly more painful than first-degree burns .
- This type of burn causes the skin to become dark and red in color , and may sometimes cause blisters .
- First aid for this degree of burn , if any blisters open , treat it with a sterile antiseptic , dry bandage , as soon as possible .
- Avoid infection if the blisters remain closed . Apply a cool , wet compress to soothe the pain , and do not open the blisters .
(C)- third degree burns
- damage both the inner and outer layers of the skin , as well as the nerves and muscular vessels .
- And sometimes even the bones below these areas . They often become charred black or white .
- Third-degree burns ; almost always require a medical emergency . first aid for this burns , can only be wrapped with a dry sterile bandage .
- Even emergency treatment occurs in extreme cases , Heat shields and/or fire blankets can also be wrapped around the victim , to prevent any further progression of the burn . It can also relieve pain and protect against contamination .
- (2) CPR first aid
- CPR is a lifesaving technique , useful in many emergencies , including cardiogenic shock or even drowning .
- Where a person’s breathing or heartbeat , has stopped . The American Heart Association recommends that everyone , including untrained bystanders , learn the basics of CPR , especially chest compressions .
- Everyone should remember that the difference between doing something , and doing nothing can be someone’s life .
- Shock is a life-threatening condition , caused by the sudden decrease in blood flow throughout the body .
- When a person is in shock their organs are , not getting enough blood or oxygen .
- The visible signs on the skin include wet skin , bluish lips , rapid breathing , a change in mental status or feeling severe dizziness and tiredness .
- (1) – Before you begin , it is important to make sure that the environment is safe , and that the person is already unconscious .
If there is someone nearby , let them be able to help you by calling the emergency medical number .
If you’re alone , call the number first , and then proceed with CPR , if you’re trained to do so , according to the American Heart Association .
- (2) – If you are not trained in CPR , it is recommended that you provide CPR only with hands .
Rescue breathing is not recommended without proper CPR training.
- (3) – If you are well trained and confident in your ability to check to see , if there is a pulse and breathing .
If there is no breathing or pulse within 10 seconds , begin with chest compressions to begin CPR with 30 chest compressions , before giving two rescue breaths .
If you have had previous CPR training , but are not confident in your abilities . You only press on the chest at a rate of 100 to 120 per minute .
(4) – Before considering CPR , make sure the person has an open airway , and is not suffocating .
To open his airway you need to tilt his head back a little , raise his chin , this procedure removes the tongue away from the back of the throat and allows air to reach the lungs .
Next, you will need to check for breathing , with your face directed toward the person . Putting it directly above the person’s mouth , listen for breathing and see if the chest rises and falls .
If the person is not breathing normally after examining the airway , breathe out .
- (5) – Check the pulse by feeling for five to ten seconds at a time on the victim’s neck or wrist , if there is no pulse , start chest compressions .
(6) – To perform chest compressions , place the heel of one hand on the lower part of the sternum , with your other hand directly on top of the first .
The hand presses on the sternum by an inch and a half to two inches . You can continue to apply 100 to 120 chest compressions every minute . checking for a return of the pulse every minute .
Continue without interruption until advanced life support is available.
- (7) – If the person is still conscious , encourage him to lie down with his feet raised , if he feels nauseous , or has difficulty breathing . Or if you suspect a spinal injury , encourage him to lie down and stay calm .
- (3) First aid for minor wounds
Wounds are often the most common injury in the workplace .
- The first treatment for minor cuts , or abrasions , usually requires cleaning the wound with an antiseptic or with soap and water .
- When treating someone else’s wounds , always check for allergies , before using any creams or ointments . use a bandage if the wound is bleeding .
- if there is significant external bleeding , and a simple bandage does not work , the patient will likely require emergency medical treatment , and you will need to call emergency number immediately .
- While waiting for emergency medical attention , applying pressure to the wound to help control bleeding is recommended .
- It can also be helpful ; if the affected part of the body is raised . Unless a fracture is suspected , in which case it is best to rest and monitor the person .
- (4) First aid for insect bites
If the person has been bitten by an insect, an animal, or even a hostile person who represents a potential danger ;
- A- If any of these happen, the first action would be to evade danger, then assess the severity of the wound or sting.
- B- If it was a bite and the person had an allergic reaction : the emergency service should be contacted immediately .
If you have trouble breathing , swelling of the lips or eyelids , dizziness , fainting , fast heartbeat , convulsions , nausea, or vomiting immediately after an insect bite .
- C- Sometimes some bites can cause ; more severe or allergic reactions . Fire bees and scorpions are more likely to cause more severe reactions . And it can take up to an hour, before a patient begins to see symptoms.
Such as shortness of breath, weakness , anxiety , nausea , or rash , abdominal cramps , loss of consciousness and/or shock .
- D- If the person has a severe allergic reaction , ask the person if they carry an epinephrine injection pen . To treat the reaction , an injection is made into the thigh .
- E- If the person has a severe spell , you may want to encourage them to loosen any tight clothing and provide a blanket to cover them .
It is also recommended not to give him anything to drink ; if the person begins to vomit . Have him sit upright , and in a secure position to prevent suffocation .
- F- If he does not show signs of heavy breathing , coughing or movement , perform chest compressions over and over , if it is comfortable for him to do so .
How to treat inflamed insect bites
- (1)- To treat an infected insect bite : first , find a safe area to avoid the predator and quickly pull the victim out .
And never try to apply pressure to the area where the sting is , as this can further irritate the sting .
Most insect stings can be mild causing slight pain , redness , itching , or swelling . Mosquito bites can also sometimes carry West Nile virus , and ticks can carry Lyme disease .
- (2)- Clean the area with water using ice water , and a clean towel , this will help reduce potential pain and swelling .
If the sting is on an arm or leg , try elevating it to help relieve the pain .
- (3)- Apply at home hydrocortisone cream , calamine , or even baking soda paste on the sting . And keep doing this for several days until the pain and irritation are gone .
Taking antihistamines can also help reduce itching . If the sting does not go away after a day or two , You should consult a doctor .
First aid for an injury
- (4)- If it was a wound ; It is best to disinfect the wound with soap and water for at least five minutes .
Then put a bandage on to control the bleeding, if the wound appears severe or the bite was by an enemy person.
- (5)- Call the emergency number so they can send competent help . Keep pressure on the wound until help arrives , and appropriate treatment can be applied .
- (5) first aid for eye injuries
- 1) – Injuries are common in the workplace and often occur when a foreign substance enters the eye , causing a penetrating injury to the eye .
- 2). Eye injuries can be extremely painful , and debilitating . Because of this a strict policy is implemented , requiring all employees to wear goggles at all times, when servicing equipment .
And upon contact with waste , or chemicals . It may also occur when using hand , and power tools .
- 3)- In the event of a foreign substance or chemicals inside the eye , it must be rinsed immediately for at least 15 minutes .
Remember to avoid rinsing the water in the direction of the other eye , and never try to remove any embedded objects as ; this can cause further damage to the eye .
- 4)- If the pain persists , cover the eye with a sterile bandage or even a roll . and seek medical attention quickly if a chemical gets into the eye .
You should also avoid placing anything flat on the eye , as it may cause additional pressure to the eye injury . consider covering both eyes as this will prevent you from trying to look around undamaged .
remember to stay calm , until you get to the hospital , or until urgent care arrives .
- (6) First aid for epistaxis
The nose is full of blood vessels , is located in a supine position , as it protrudes from the face . As a result of any kind of trauma to the face , it can often cause nosebleeds ” epistaxis “.
- 1)- To treat epistaxis , it is recommended to first sit down and tilt your head forward slightly , and do not try to tilt your head back .
Because this allows blood to flow back into the sinuses and throat , it may also cause a gagging or aspiration of blood .
- 2)- With your head tilted slightly forward . Put your index finger and thumb on the nose , and press the soft part of the nostrils , just below the bridge of the nose for at least 10 minutes .
After 10 minutes ; release pressure on the nostrils , and check to see if the bleeding has stopped .
- 3)- If the bleeding stops , do not try to smell , or blow your nose for at least 15 minutes . If the bleeding continues , seek medical help immediately .
- (7) First aid for sprain and fracture
Employees who perform rigorous , repetitive tasks with excessive force , and awkward postures are often more likely to develop torsion in the workplace .
It must always be handled with extreme caution , because a sprain is the tearing of the fibers from the ligament , which can hold two bones together . This can often occur in the legs , arms or neck .
How to treat a minor ankle sprain ?
- 1)- Put ice packs on the area to reduce swelling , and ice should be placed at spaced intervals , for 20 minutes each time . so that the patient does not get frostbite .
- 2)- Wrap a compression strap on the foot and ankle , to reduce joint movement . The foot can be raised , above the level of the body .
how to heal sprained ankle fast as possible? :
- 1. For more serious sprains or potential fractures , seek medical attention .
- 2. For further evaluation once a sprain has occurred , it is highly recommended to allow the sprain to rest . Avoid placing any weight on the injury , preferably with a sling or a brace , depending on where the injury is at rest .
- 3. It is important to put ice packs on the sprain immediately , for 15 to 20 minutes to reduce swelling . It is also recommended to continue icing the affected area four to eight times daily until the swelling improves after icing.
compress the injury by wrapping it in an elastic bandage , and remember to wrap it tightly but not too tightly , as this can often cause more swelling .
- 4. Signs that the bandage is too tight include numbness, numbness , or increased swelling in the area under the bandage .
- 5. Once you have taken the steps of the ice packs correctly , and compressed the spring , raise the injury above the level of the heart .
If the ability exists , by sitting or lying down . This will help reduce swelling .
- 1)- A broken bone is very painful , and can take a long time to heal . If someone around you encounters a broken bone .
The fracture must be controlled . If there is any bleeding , try to stop it using a sterile cloth pad . Or using a piece of clothing .
- 2)- You will then need to immobilize the affected area using a splint , and put ice on it for 10 minutes . Medical attention is always needed for a broken bone .
- 3)- Do your best to calm the injured person , encourage him to rest and offer to take him to hospital .
This is the first part of the first aid course . You will find the second part in the following article from here .