Respiratory diseases, their symptoms and treatment

 respiratory system is the system responsible for the breathing process in the body.


through which the cells of the body are supplied with the oxygen needed to carry out their various tasks, and they get rid of carbon dioxide.


respiratory system

 respiratory system consists of two parts :

  • The first part is the upper respiratory system, which consists of “the nose, the nasal cavity, the mouth, the pharynx, and the larynx”. 


  • The second part is the lower respiratory system, which consists of the “trachea, lungs, bronchi and bronchi, bronchioles and bronchioles, and alveoli”.


respiratory diseases

Respiratory diseases are among the most prevalent diseases in the world, and the occurrence of these diseases is due to

  • genetic factors
  • or the nature of work, and environmental factors to which we are exposed. 
  • Or smoking, which is the main cause of respiratory diseases.


 One of the most important causes that lead to infection with respiratory diseases is the spread of viruses and their transmission from a sick person to a healthy person.  As a result of being indoors and not being well ventilated.


 Respiratory diseases affect all parts of the system, including the nose and sinuses, the throat and larynx, the trachea, the bronchi and the lungs.  So now we are dealing with some of the respiratory diseases.


 respiratory diseases list

  1. 1) – Cold 
  2. 2) – Bronchitis 
  3. 3) – Flu 
  4. 4) – Corona virus “Covid-19”
  5. 5) – The flu ” Katara ” 
  6. 6) – Asthma 
  7. 7) – Tuberculosis 
  8. 8) – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
  9. 9) – Emphysema 
  10. 10) – lung cancer 
  11. 11) – Pleuritis 


  1) – Cold :

  • Cold is a disease that spreads all over the world, and affects everyone .


  • It is an infection that affects the lining of the nasal wall, and causes congestion, a runny nose and sneezing. 


  • The common cold can cause discomfort in the throat, and it is usually the first symptom of the common cold.


Symptoms associated with a cold :

  • The patient feels a “runny” cold, with a headache, sneezing, and a slight rise in body temperature.


  • followed by congestion of the nasal mucosa and the secretion of a watery fluid, then turns into a “purulent” fluid.


  • Infection with a cold occurs through exposure to sneezing and droplets from the patient’s nose or mouth. or mixing with him  or using the tools that he uses, such as drinking cups, eating dishes, napkins, towels, etc.


How to prevent the common cold :


  • To avoid catching a cold, it is necessary to refresh the indoor air of the rooms, and do not expose your body to the fluctuations of the atmosphere.


  • as we do, when we are in a warm place , and go out to a cold atmosphere directly.


 Cold treatment :

  •  – There is currently no quick and effective treatment for the common cold, but the current treatment is to relieve symptoms.


  •  – Bed rest should be taken into account , so that you do not suffer from complications of the disease.


  • – Drink plenty of fluids, especially acidic, such as lemon juice and orange juice.


  • – light and nutritious foods such as dairy products, and vegetable soups, and it is preferable to see a doctor, especially in severe cases.


  • – To prevent the spread of the disease, patients should cover their nose and mouth with a tissue when sneezing or coughing.


  • – Take vitamin C capsules to boost your immunity.


 2) – Bronchitis :

  • It is an infection of the bronchi, and severe bronchitis causes a severe cough, which may be accompanied by sputum. as well as shortness of breath and tinnitus in the chest. 


  • This inflammation is caused by a viral infection that occurs in the upper respiratory tract.  Then it spreads to the airways.  Bronchitis usually begins with the common cold.


 bronchitis treatment

  • You must follow the same method of preventing colds.  for treatment , we recommend that you stay warm and breathe moist air.  


  • Sometimes you can use drugs such as bronchodilator sprays, and you should not use antibiotics to treat this condition ; because the inflammation is caused by a viral infection, not a bacterial one.


 3) – Flu :


  • Influenza is a type of high fever of many types, depending on the type of microorganism that causes it. 
  • It may affect the respiratory system and the digestive system.


 flu symptoms

  • Extreme high temperature : extreme high temperature may accompany cramps, especially in children. 


  • This high temperature is accompanied by pain, in the joints, and spine and severe headache.


  • If the infection is of the type that affects the respiratory system, symptoms of bronchitis, such as coughing, may appear.


  • if treatment is ignored, it may become pneumonia.  If the damage is in the gastrointestinal tract, then the patient will complain of severe vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain.


  • The way the infection spreads and the prevention of influenza, is similar to the method mentioned in the common cold, and similar to the treatment of the common cold.


  • except that it is necessary to rest completely, so that the symptoms do not worsen.


 4) – Corona virus “Covid-19” :

  • The emerging corona virus “2019-Covid” is from the family of viruses, which cause common colds, SARS syndrome, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome.


  • The virus was identified for the first time in a group of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, in 2019.


 Symptoms of COVID-19 infection:

  • Among the common symptoms that indicate infection with the Coronavirus, which appear on the respiratory system are “high fever, coughing, irritability, and difficulty breathing. 


  • As the symptoms are similar to the symptoms of influenza or regular colds. A test must be performed to confirm infection with the emerging coronavirus (  Covid-19).


  • The infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute lung syndrome, and kidney failure, and complications may reach death in severe cases.


 Treating the symptoms of  corona virus “Covid-19”:


  • According to health authorities, there is currently no treatment for this virus, whether for humans or animals, but some vaccines have been developed for this virus. 


  • Intensive supportive care and symptomatic treatment remain the main method of coping with the disease.


 5) – The flu ” Katara ” :

  • This is a group of chest diseases , that affect the lung tissue.  It may affect the airways, so it is called “bronchitis” and it may affect the alveoli, so it is called “pneumonia”.


  • In bronchitis, there is a lot of mucus secretion in the bronchi and bronchi, causing coughing.  Which in turn expels mucus externally in the form of “phlegm”.


  • In pneumonia, the alveoli are filled with fluid, which may impede the breathing process and cause all aspects of suffocation.  As the patient will have difficulty breathing, and the face and lips may turn blue.


How to prevent :

  • Patients should stay in bed, avoid exposure to drafts and extremely humid environments, and quickly begin treating colds and all respiratory infections.


respiratory diseases



 6) – Asthma :

  • Asthma is a non-contagious disease, but it is a chronic disease that affects all age groups, and both sexes, men and women, without discrimination. 


  • The disease is caused by an abnormal immune response, in the body.


  • These immune responses are stimuli available in the environment surrounding the human being, such as “pollen, dust, animal skin hair and airborne droplets when breathing in, and certain types of food such as eggs, milk and chocolate.”


  • Scientific research has proven that there is a link between disease and genetics, because children born to parents with the disease are more likely to develop asthma.


  • It is produced by narrowing and swelling of the airways and the secretion of more mucus.


  • which makes breathing difficult, causes coughing and wheezing, and restricts breathing. 
  • Some people may have milder asthma symptoms that progress to severe and life-threatening.


asthma treatment

  • Due to the diversity of pathogens, science has not yet provided a clear cure for the disease.


  • So only analgesics and sedatives can reduce the severity of repeated attacks or isolated seizure.


  • such as a drug that is a spray containing one chemical, can promote bronchiectasis. 


  • It is the most common method as it is sprayed in the mouth and, with the inhalation, it reaches the bronchi, where it expands them.


 7) – Tuberculosis :

  • Tuberculosis disease is caused by infection with the “Mycobacterium tuberculosis” bacteria in the lungs, which is an infectious disease that spreads through the air.


  • Although the World Health Organization classifies it , as one of the ten diseases that cause death in the world.  But it can be prevented and recovered. 


  • It should be noted that tuberculosis is divided into two types:


  1. 1) – Latent TB disease 
  2. 2) – Active TB 


1) – Latent TB disease :

  • With latent TB, the bacteria are present in the human body but are inactive. 


  • It will not cause any symptoms to the patient, and in this case the person is not contagious, but he may be active in the future.


2) – Active TB :

  • The bacteria that cause tuberculosis are active, so the patient suffers from symptoms of the disease and can be transmitted to others.


  • These symptoms include “coughing sometimes accompanied by sputum or blood, fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, chest pain, feeling weak and tired.”


chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

8) – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease :

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a disease that affects the respiratory system, and is a long-term disease.


  • It is a chronic inflammation of the lung that impedes air circulation in the lungs, and among the main causes of it are emphysema and bronchitis. 


  • This also occurs due to prolonged exposure to the irritating gases, or suspended particles usually produced by cigarette smoke.


  • People with COPD are more likely to have heart disease, lung cancer, or various other diseases.


Symptoms of obstructive pulmonary disease :

  • Symptoms of this disease usually do not appear until after severe lung damage and worsen over time, especially if smoking continues.


  • The main symptoms are coughing, and mucus secretion daily for three months every year for two years in a row.


  • Other symptoms may include, “shortness of breath, especially during physical exercise, chest tightness, and due to excessive mucus in the lungs.
  • you need to clean your throat immediately upon waking up in the morning.”


  • A chronic cough may produce mucus (phlegm) that may be clear, white, yellow, or green.  Purple lips or fingernails, frequent respiratory infections occur.


  • Other symptoms include lack of energy, unexpected weight loss “in the late stages of the disease,” swelling of the ankles, feet, or legs.


  • In addition, people with chronic bronchitis are more prone to attacks, and the symptoms of these attacks become worse than usual and last for several days.


 9) – Emphysema :

  • Emphysema is a respiratory disease that occurs when the air sacs in the lungs are damaged. 


  • Over time, the inner walls of the alveoli become thinner and rupture, which creates larger air spaces and reduces the surface area of ​​the lungs. 


  • This reduces the amount of oxygen that reaches the blood.  Damaged alveoli do not function properly when exhaled, stale air gets trapped inside, and there is no room for fresh, oxygen-rich air to enter.


 Symptoms of emphysema 

  • A person may have alveoli for several years without noticing any signs or symptoms, and the main symptom of emphysema is shortness of breath, which increases gradually.


  • Ultimate emphysema can cause shortness of breath even at rest.


lung cancer 

 10) – lung cancer :

  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of death and the most important killer of all respiratory diseases. 


  • It kills more than colon cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer combined.


  • Smokers are more likely to develop lung cancer, and it may affect those who have never smoked. 


  • The longer you smoke, the greater the risk of lung cancer, and the more cigarettes will be.


 Symptoms of lung cancer :

  • Lung cancer does not usually cause symptoms or signs in the early stages.  Unless the disease is in an advanced stage.


  • Symptoms of cancerous respiratory disease may include the following:


“A sudden cough that does not go away, and coughs up blood even in a small amount. Shortness of breath, chest pain, hoarseness, weight loss, and bone pain. “


 11) – Pleuritis :

Pleuritis occurs when the membrane surrounding the lung is inflamed.


  • It consists of a layer of tissue lining the chest cavity and a layer of tissue that surrounds the lungs (the pleural membrane). 


  • Pleuritis can cause severe chest pain “pleurisy” that worsens while breathing.


 Symptoms of pleuritis :

  • Signs and symptoms of pleuritis include :


” Chest pain that worsens when breathing, coughing or sneezing, shortness of breath, in some cases it may be accompanied by a fever.”


ways to prevent respiratory diseases

  • 1) – Hygiene is one of the most important ways to prevent diseases that affect the respiratory system. You must wash your hands frequently to remove bacteria and fungi.


  • 2) – Use hand sanitizers, you should buy sterilizers of a small size, and use them permanently in case you are outside the home.


  • 3) – Staying away from crowds and not being in crowded places, to prevent contact with people with respiratory diseases.


  • 4) – Please stay away from smokers, as smoking can negatively affect the respiratory system and cause illness.


  • 5) – Take care to exercise, as it can strengthen muscles, inhale oxygen, and remove carbon dioxide.


  • 6) – Stay away from places where there is a lot of smoke and gases that may harm the respiratory system.  This may cause diseases such as asthma and infections of the lungs and trachea.


  • 7) – People who work in poorly ventilated buildings should;  Like filters, structures etc., they must wear protective masks to protect the respiratory system from dust, chemical fumes, etc.  They all cause tissue irritation, inflammation, and tissue damage.


  • 8) – Drink plenty of fluids, which keep the body hydrated and reduce lung secretions.


  • 9) – Having different plants in the house can purify the atmosphere, increase the percentage of oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, acetone and ammonia.


  • 10) – Paying attention to vaccination to prevent respiratory diseases and strengthen the body’s immunity.


  • 11) – It is important to eat healthy foods that contain vitamins and minerals, especially healthy foods that contain vitamin C.  Also, be sure to eat foods that contain protein.


  • 12) – Omega-3 is an important acid that helps prevent respiratory diseases.


  • 13) – Pay adequate rest so that the disease does not increase with the patient.


  • 14) – It is important to take care of mental health and get rid of stress, as it has many respiratory side effects.


  • 15) – Avoid eating  foods that contain fatty acids, that are harmful to the respiratory system.


  • 16) – In case of acute respiratory disease, you must go to the doctor to prescribe the appropriate medicine for you.


  • 17) – Always ventilate your home. You should keep the air in your home clean.  In addition to using exhaust fans (hoods) in the kitchen and bathrooms to get rid of moisture.  And the house must be cleaned of dust frequently.  Your health is your treasure, so save it.


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