lung cancer stages and treatment

 Lung Cancer

 Lung cancers are very common, in fact they are the third most common type of cancer after breast and prostate cancer.  It constitutes about 13% of all diagnosed cancers, and is the common cause of cancer death.


  • The lungs are an integral part of the respiratory system, and the right lung is slightly larger than the left lung.  The right lung contains three main sections or lobes, the upper lobe, the middle lobe, and the lower lobe.


  • The left lung is slightly smaller than the right lung, as the heart occupies more space in the chest than the left side, and therefore the left lung has only two lobes.


  • Lung cancer begins in the upper and lower lobes in the cells; that make up lung tissue.  A lack of normal cells and their accumulation leads to a cancerous growth or tumor, these tumors can invade nearby tissues or organs.


 Lung cancer causes

  • Of course, the most common risk factor for lung cancer is smoking cigarettes or other forms of tobacco.  90% of lung cancer patients are current or former smokers.


  • Other risk factors include exposure to secondhand smoke.


  • A family history of lung cancer.


  • Exposure to radiotherapy or exposure in the workplace to asbestos, chromium, nickel, arsenic, and radon.


 lung cancer Symptoms

  • Most patients with lung cancer have no symptoms, in the early stages of their disease.


  • But some of the common symptoms of recurrent lung cancer are a cough, but it usually lasts for two or three weeks or the cough worsens and becomes long lasting, in addition to hemoptysis.


  • Difficulty breathing, wheezing, unexplained weight loss, unexplained loss of appetite.


  • Frequent chest infections, and the risk of developing inflammatory pain (bone pain in the chest area), but it is not common because the lung itself is unable to feel, because it does not contain pain receptors.


 Pain occurs only when the tumor invades the chest wall, where there are pain receptors.


 Lung cancer types

 There are two main types of lung cancer

  1.  (1) – Small cell lung cancer
  2.  (2) – Non-small cell lung cancer


  • (1) – Small cell lung cancer, called small because it begins in the small cell lung, cancer consists of small undifferentiated cells.


  • (2) – non-small cell lung cancer, it is also possible that they have characteristics of both types.  Cellular lung carcinomas differ greatly from each other in terms of outcomes, and treatment modalities.


 There are three distinct types of non-small cell lung cancer, which differ in shape and chemical design when viewed under a microscope:


  1. (A) – squamous cell carcinomas
  2. (B) – adenocarcinomas
  3. (C) – large cell carcinoma


 The three subtypes, separate diseases, may have different treatment options.


  • (A) – Squamous cell carcinomas that arise from epithelial cells located in the airways, and are likely to cause the collapse of the lung lobes.


 Squamous cell carcinoma usually appears in smokers and ex-smokers.  It is an aggressive or rapidly growing form of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, usually found in the center of the lung.


  • (B) – Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of lung cancer, and include gland cells such as goblet cells, adenocarcinoma grows in the peripheral lung tissue


  • (C) – There is also a large cell carcinoma, the name suggests that they are large tumors, which can grow either nearly or into the peripheral lung tissue.


 Lung cancer grading is a system that describes the overall size, and spread of the primary tumor, and clinicians need staging information to plan a patient’s treatment.


lung cancer stages

 Lung cancer is classified into several stages, and the higher the stage, the more advanced the spread of the tumor.


  • 0)- In case zero disease, the cancer is only in the top layer of cells that line the air passages of the lungs, this is also called carcinoma in situ.


  • I)- In stage I, the cancer is small and only found in one lobe of the lung, and nowhere else.


 The most common treatment for stage 1 cancer at the time is resection of that part of the lung, and we can cure 80 to 85 percent of stage 1 lung cancers.


  • (II)- In stage 2A, the cancer is in one lung and the primary tumor is small, less than 3 centimeters, or 3 to 5 centimeters, and has spread to nearby lymph nodes.


Stage 2A can also mean that the cancer is in one lung and the primary tumor is slightly larger than 5 cm, can be 7 cm wide but has not spread to the lymph nodes or elsewhere.


 In stage 2B, the cancer is in one lung and the primary tumor is five to seven centimeters wide and has spread to nearby lymph nodes, but not elsewhere.


 Stage 2B can also mean that the primary tumor is larger than seven centimeters and has not spread to the lymph nodes or elsewhere.


 This stage is often treated with an operation to remove that part of the lung as well, and the affected lymph nodes.  But most patients who have stage II will also be candidates for chemotherapy.


  • (III)- In stage 3A, the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes along the trachea on the same side as the primary tumor.


 In stage 3B, the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes along the trachea on the side opposite the primary tumor.


  • (IV)- In stage IV; the cancer has spread to the other lung as well as the lymph nodes outside the lungs;  In the fluid surrounding the heart known as malignant pericardial effusion, or other organs such as the liver, and bone.


 Lung cancer diagnosis

  • There are a variety of different tests, that are used to determine whether the cancer has spread throughout the body.


  • These include the results of a physical examination, a range of non-invasive tests such as X-rays, and invasive tests commonly referred to as endoscopy or biopsies.


  • These are some of the most commonly performed tests, which can be used to determine the stage of lung cancer.


  • A CT scan of the chest and abdomen is usually done, this provides detailed images of the lung tumor and is important for staging and treatment planning.


  • Some arrays contain unusual scans, one of which is called a “PET” scan.  Radioactive sugar is used to determine the location of cancer cells in the body, because cancer cells use sugar quickly that enables the location of cancer cells through this examination.


  • All of these tests are used to determine if a single spot in the lung has spread elsewhere, and it is important to determine the spread to the lymph nodes or other organs, using an MRI.


  • A brain scan may be necessary, to determine if the tumor has spread to the brain.


  • Finally, lung function tests are important to assess lung and breathing capabilities, and are especially important to determine if surgery is possible.


lung cancer treatment by stage 

 Lung cancer treatment

 Treatment options include lung cancer

  •  (1) – Local treatments such as surgery and radiotherapy.


  •  (2) – Systemic treatments such as chemotherapy, targeted therapy and “targeted therapies”
  •  (3) – Immunotherapy.


 The patient may receive one, or a combination of these treatments.


  •  (1) – Surgical treatments for lung cancer

 There are many surgical options for lung cancer depending on the type and stage of the cancer.


 During a wedge resection, a portion of the tumor and a small portion of healthy tissue are removed.


 In a lobectomy or quantitative lobectomy, one lobe of the lung is removed.


 In a pneumonectomy, the surgeon removes the entire lung, the affected portion of the large airway is removed, and the healthy limbs are reconnected during any of these procedures.


  •  (2) – Radiotherapy

 Radiation therapy is a local treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells, or shrink them to relieve symptoms.


 Directed to the site of cancers from a device outside brachytherapy in the patient’s body.  Or internal radiation therapy, often in the form of pellets, is most commonly used to help relieve obstruction of the large airways.


  •  (3) – Chemotherapy for lung cancer

 Chemotherapy for lung cancer is a treatment, that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing them or by inhibiting their cell division.


  •  (4) – Targeted Therapies

 Targeted therapies are newer cancer treatments, which work by focusing on specific genetic abnormalities of cancer cell growth;  By blocking chemicals that send signals to cancer cells to grow and divide.


immunotherapy lung cancer

  •  (5) – Immunotherapy

 Immunotherapy is a new advance in cancer treatment, which uses a patient’s own immune system to fight cancer.


 Your immune system is your body’s natural defense, which fights infections and diseases.


 An army of cells including T cells that fight off foreign invaders such as cancer immunotherapies target, activate these T cells and can teach the immune system what cancer looks like, so it can better fight cancer cells.


lung cancer keytruda

 An example of specific immunotherapies is “Troodon katroo de” which is an immunotherapy drug treatment, which shows a lot of hope. “Baki true de” is its trade name.


 It is an immunotherapy that works with the immune system to help fight some types of cancer.


 Did you know that curative therapy is a new treatment for cancer, different from chemotherapy.  But it is often confused with chemotherapy.


 But the way they work inside your body is completely different, and more importantly, the side effects are completely different from chemotherapy.


It targets cancer, chemotherapy drugs can attack both cancerous cells, and healthy cells, and this can lead to a variety of side effects.


lung cancer treatment side effects

 Symptoms and side effects of immunotherapy vary from patient to patient, and not everyone will experience the same side effects.


 Some common side effects of immunotherapy are flu-like symptoms that can include mild symptoms, fever, chills, fatigue, rash, itchy skin, possibly difficulty breathing, and a cough.


 The effects to watch for are a worsening of the rash, skin ulcers on the skin or mouth, blistering or peeling of the skin. If any of these effects occur, contact your healthcare practitioner immediately.


 Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in the world, but it is one of the most preventable.


 Many people believe that lung cancer cannot be cured, but the earlier the cancer is detected, the more successful the treatment.


 The survival of a patient with lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease, and the general health of the patient.


  Also many other factors Because survival estimates do not predict, what will happen to anyone, it is best to speak with your doctor to understand it, your individual situation and your options.


 The most important thing you can do for your health and lung cancer prevention is not to start smoking, or to quit smoking, and to avoid inhaling other people’s smoke.


sources 1.