first aid for head injuries, poisoning, and heimlich maneuver 

(A) First aid for head injuries

 Head injuries are often one of the most serious types of injuries , in the workplace .  It must be handled with extreme caution , the first aid response often varies based on a person’s symptoms , and the severity of the injury .


  •  1- First assess the level of consciousness of the person , if any loss of consciousness occurs or is present at any time ; call the emergency number immediately .


  •  2- In the case of severe injuries , keep the person as still as possible . If there appears to be any bleeding , apply forceful pressure directly , to the wound . 
And you have to continue to monitor your breathing and vigilance, until emergency services arrive.
  •  3- For minor injuries , do your best to calm the individual , and encourage them to lie down .  While applying ice to the injury to prevent swelling , continue to observe the individual for at least 30 minutes . 
watching for any signs of dizziness, vomiting, and changes in levels of consciousness.  This is a sign of a possible concussion.
  •  (B) first aid for poisoning
  •  1- If you come across someone around you who appears to have been poisoned , contact emergency services immediately .  It can also be life-saving by obtaining an SDS sheet for the product , which may be the cause of poisoning .


  •  2- In addition to calling in poison control , you can follow these quick , life-saving actions ; which can often be of interest .  The effect if followed within seconds – 2 minutes of ingestion of the poison .


  •  3- If you suspect poisoning by ingestion , immediately contact a poison control center who may encourage the person to drink a small amount of water, or milk .


in case the person complains of irritation or a burning sensation in the stomach .  He was conscious , had no convulsions , and was able to swallow .


  •  4- If you suspect poisoning has occurred through the skin , the affected area should be rinsed well for at least 15 minutes .  And if there is any side effect , a doctor should be contacted and a visit will be required .


  •  5- If you suspect inhalation poisoning ; remove the person from the area, and move them to a safe place .  Once moved to a safe location , contact poison control for further recommendations .


  • (C) how to treat a seizure first aid
  •  1- Although many individuals who suffer from epileptic seizures , do not need first aid .  But aid is often aimed at maintaining , until a seizure occurs ; a person’s safety ; Because the seizure often stops on its own .
  •  2- If you come across a person having an epileptic seizure , always keep them calm , relax anything around the person’s neck , and do not restrain them .  Clear the area around him , and stay with him until the seizure stops .


  •  3- If the seizure lasts more than five minutes ; Call the emergency immediately . and stay with him until the arrival of the competent authorities .


  •  (D) first aid  for choking sign

 Every year many people die from choking on objects in the windpipe , which obstruct the airway, and cause suffocation .  In fact , the fourth major cause of unintentional death is suffocation .  


But there is a simple technique to help expel , a trapped object from a person’s airway .  You can even use a version of this technique , this technique is known as ;  As the Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrusts .


 Heimlich maneuver on yourself 

  •  (1) First you must cough , to expel the stuck thing .  But if that doesn’t work , clench your fists down your back , raise your diaphragm , and let the air out of your lungs .  This causes the foreign body  , to be expelled from your airway .


  •  (2) If the item is still there , you can still perform abdominal thrusts to remove the item using a hard surface such as a chair or table .  
  • (3) put your fist just above your navel , and grab your fist with the other hand , leaning against a hard surface .  Push your fist in and up . A table top or chair , will help you push out the stuck thing .


 Heimlich’s maneuver on someone else

  • (1) To perform the Heimlich maneuver on another person ,  standing behind the person . place one foot slightly in front of them , for balance .  


balance is very important , because if you can’t dislodge the stuck object . it will pass out ,  You need to be prepared to direct the person to the ground . without harming them yourself .


  • (2) Wrap your arms around the tip of the waist , the person will forward with a slight fist ; place with one hand just above the person’s navel .  


But below the rib cage , grab your fist with the other hand , and pull firmly toward your abdomen with a quick push up . 


Lift the person upward for six to ten abdominal compressions ; until the obstruction is cleared .  If someone else is available to you let them . call for help while you are doing first aid .


  • (3) And if the person becomes unconscious , be sure to lower them safely to the ground .  And clear the airway , if obstruction is visible , in the back of the throat or at the top of the throat .


 If you cannot see the object , be careful not to push the food or object deep into the airway , which can easily happen in young children .


  • (4) If the body remains stable , do the above procedures . Perform CPR , if trained properly .


If you are not trained, do chest compressions . Begin with chest compressions . the chest compressions  used in CPR can displace the body , and remember to recheck the mouth periodically .


 Heimlich maneuver for pregnant women

  •  To perform the Heimlich maneuver on someone who is pregnant , or cannot put your arms around them .  Point the person toward the wall , place your hands slightly higher than the normal Heimlich maneuver , at the base of the breastbone .


  •  Just above the intercostal joint of the lower ribs . while pressing hard on the abdomen , with a quick push .  Repeat until the blockage is removed .


 Heimlich maneuver for  baby

  •  1) To perform the Heimlich maneuver on a baby under one year old , assume a seated position . and hold the infant face down , on your forearm , which is resting on your thigh.

Support the infant’s head and neck with your hand , then place the infant’s head lower than the torso . and gently stroke the infant , five times ; on the middle of the back using the heel of your hand .

  •  2) turn the baby over ;  So that it is face up and above your forearm and resting , your thigh with the head lower than your torso .  If the infant is still not breathing , using two fingers placed in the middle of the infant’s breastbone . 


Make five quick chest compressions , press down about an inch and a half and let the chest rise again between each compression . Repeat back blows , chest compressions until breathing resumes .


 In all cases of suffocation mentioned, an emergency should be called, as soon as possible.  Even if the blockage is easily removed, a person should always be examined by a medical professional.


  • (E) first aid for broken tooth
  •  If a person has had dental entry ,  or the tooth has been extracted .  If the person has had a tooth inserted ; or is dislodged , rinse the tooth with milk or water . 


  • And try to return it to its original place if it is not possible to return it to its quarry .  Put it in warm water or milk and head to the dentist as soon as possible.


  •  In any dental emergency , the most important variable affecting the success of reimplantation is the amount of time the tooth is out of the reimplanted dental cavity within one hour , of the accident .


 When it comes to first aid , there is a lot to remember .  However ; one of the most important things you can do to help , is to remain calm and assess the situation .  And stabilize yourself or the individual until specialists arrive .


This is the second part of the first aid course .  You will find the first part here .

sources 1.

sources 2.