The circulatory system is known as the cardiovascular system, and this system consists mainly of the heart and blood vessels.
where the heart works to pump blood through the blood vessels, passing through the various organs, tissues, and cells of the body.
In order to deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues, in addition to removing carbon dioxide and waste products from the body’s cells and tissues.
returning them to the blood, so that they are disposed of through the lungs. Now, we will talk about the cardiovascular system in what it consists of, its most important functions and what are heart disease?.
- circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).
- It is the pump that works regularly and continuously to maintain the circulation of the blood.
- The blood vessels divide To the arteries that transport blood from the heart to the various parts of the body. and the blood veins that transport blood from various parts of the body to the heart.
Components of the cardiovascular system
The circulatory system consists of ” heart, blood vessels, and blood”.
- the heart:
The heart is the main part of the circulatory system in the human body, and it is a pump that pumps blood to different parts of the body, and the lungs.
The heart is located in the rib cage between the lungs, is slightly tilted to the left, and rests over the diaphragm muscle that separates the chest from the abdominal cavity.
The heart is divided into two completely separate halves. It is made up of four chambers, and is surrounded by a fluid-filled sac called the pericardium.
- Blood vessels:
Blood travels carrying oxygen with it in the human body through channels spread throughout the body called blood vessels.
the blood vessels in the body are divided into arteries, veins, and capillaries, so that blood starts pumping from the heart through vessels known as arteries, then poured into smaller and smaller vessels to reach the capillaries, blood circulation. then blood returns to the heart through the veins.
the blood circulation in the body is a closed cycle; The cycle begins and ends in the heart, and the following is an explanation of the types of blood vessels in the body:
The arteries work to transport the rushed blood from the heart towards various parts of the body and the lungs.
The pulmonary circulation occurs with the exit of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart through the pulmonary artery to the lungs.
in the major circulation, the arteries leaving the left ventricle of the heart carry oxygen-rich blood to Different parts of the body.
The arteries are flexible, which enables them to withstand high blood pressure and control blood pressure
Which forms a network of capillaries, to deliver blood to and from cells in the various organs of the body.
Veins transport blood from the body parts to the heart, most notably the valves found in the veins of the legs and arms.
- The blood:
It is a specialized fluid that travels through various blood vessels.
Blood consists of four basic components
Plasma is a yellow-colored liquid that contains water, protein, sugar, salts, and fats.
The plasma fluid travels throughout the body to transport with it many substances, including blood cells, nutrients, and waste products from cells, antibodies, and hormones.
Plasma helps maintain fluid balance in the body.
- Red blood cells:
The red blood cells are bright red and the red blood cells contain the protein hemoglobin.
Responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood and transporting it from the lungs to the rest of the body.
- White blood cells:
The body produces fewer white blood cells compared to red blood cells, as white blood cells make up only 1% of the blood, and the main function of white blood cells is to protect the body from infection. Where It attack foreign bodies such as viruses and bacteria.
Platelets are found in the blood in the form of small oval cells and its function is blood clotting and prevents leakage.
Function of circulatory system
The function of the various body systems aim to maintain body balance and balance of the internal environment in the human body. keep it alive and practice a normal life.
the functions of the cardiovascular system in which blood is transported through the blood vessels in the human body, which include the following:
- Supplying the different cells of the body with oxygen, nutrients, and various compounds that they need.
- Transfer of carbon dioxide and waste products of biological processes from cells to organs specialized for disposal of them outside the body.
- Transferring nutrients, hormones, and oxygen to cells throughout the body, and in turn removing carbon dioxide and waste products from body cells.
- Protect the body from foreign bodies and toxic substances; that is through white blood cells, antibodies, and some proteins that have a role in fighting microbes.
- Protect the body from any bleeding, and leakage of blood through the coagulation process.
- Helping the body to regulate temperature, control water content inside cells, as well as regulate the pH of fluids in the body.
- Contribute to the transfer of cells specialized in fighting infection and inflammation in the body.
The mechanism of action of circulatory system
The mechanism of action of the circulatory system inside the human body depends on two blood cycles, which aim to provide oxygen to all parts of the body, namely:
- The first session:
It is the cycle called the systemic cycle, during which the blood loaded with oxygen and vital materials is transported from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Also, the systemic circulation is represented in the left ventricle to pump the blood carrying oxygen and vital materials into the aorta and from there to the rest of the arteries and the capillary network.
So that the rest of the body is supplied with oxygen and vital nutrients, while blood is returned after it became devoid of oxygen, by the blood vessels to the right atrium and from there to the right ventricle.
- Second period:
This period is called the pulmonary circulation in which the oxygen-free blood loaded with carbon dioxide is received.
Diseases affecting the cardiovascular system
Components of the cardiac system can be affected by a number of diseases, including:
Angina is considered one of the most dangerous diseases of the circulatory system in the human body.
this condition occurs as a result of the lack of blood supply to the heart, which results in symptoms such as shortness of breath and fatigue accompanied by nausea, severe pain in the chest and shoulder.
Mitral valve narrowing or blockage:
It is one of the conditions that affect the circulatory system, as a result of the mitral valve’s exposure to a defect that results in it not closing tightly, which means blood flowing in a different direction in the heart.
Atherosclerosis is one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system, which affects the arteries as a result of the accumulation of fats on the blood vessels.
which results in the difficulty of blood passing through the arteries as a result of their hardening.
This leads to high blood pressure, causing serious health problems such as strokes, heart or kidney damage.
It occurs as a result of stopping blood flow to the heart, due to coronary artery blockage, which results in the death of heart muscle tissue, which may cause death in the event of the death of a large number of muscle tissue.
Methods of protecting the cardiovascular system:
In order to preserve the cardiovascular system and protect it from diseases, it is necessary to follow these instructions:
- Maintaining the level of blood pressure and cholesterol.
- Maintain blood pressure levels.
- Follow a healthy diet, free of fat, and rich in essential elements for the body.
- Avoid tension and psychological pressure.
- Take care to lose excess weight.
- Doing exercise and activities.
- Quit Smoking.
Electronic Stroke Maker
A device implanted under the skin and connected to the heart muscle with wires.
It is used recently in heart patients who are prone to heart attacks.
When the natural heart beat maker stops working, the electronic beat maker does work so that the heart does not stop beating.